No, it won't ordinarily work for dried adhesives. It makes a mess, and can fling it around where it will readhere to something else, like the windows.
Unless the globs are huge, I wouldn't worry about the adhesive, as it makes a pretty good sealant for the floor anyway.
You can paint right over it. I am assuming you are going to put something on top of the floor, right?
You can knock down the high spots with adhesive on them with a chisel, or sharp scraper.
But overall, I wouldn't worry about it.