Hello n4matrix, and welcome!
The roof deck as a heat shielding "second roof" is a well established concept. Some of the most energy efficient homes being developed these days have "two roofs" -- a "real" roof, and a shade structure a foot or two higher. You also see this at the low end of older housing all over the country -- the pole shed that some people build over old mobile homes. It works!
Now, you ask if anyone has used foam insulation on the outside of a roof. Yes. NASA. Chunks of such foam has often damaged the famous "heat shield tiles" on the space shuttles. I think I read that they spray the foam onto the outside of the giant external fuel tank, and sometimes chunks of it peel off. Of course, this happens at several hundred miles per hour, so I would venture a guess that it is worth trying on a 60 MPH bus.
That said, since you want a wood exterior, I'm thinking that the combination of spray foam and your wood structure that terminates in a roof deck....Well, I like it a lot -- provided you don't build it too awfully heavy. The main issue would be keeping water out, while allowing air circulation. That prospect I don't like so much. The only way I would try that, would be to deliberately allow rain water to run down the side of the bus behind the wood siding -- which I think is perfectly realistic and doable. A school bus is eight feet wide, so you can add an inch of foam (more on top), an inch air space and an inch of wood, and still be legal at 8' 6" wide.
THAT said, it is my opinion that you need to rewind this tape and raise your roof first.
You say you are not competent to raise the roof, and I do appreciate a man who understands his limits. A valuable trait. But raising a roof is not all that difficult. Sure, it's a lot of work, but the difficulty is mostly in the planning. So you might want to read more about roof raising, and then ask yourself for a second opinion. Believe me, at 6' 6", you will not be a happy camper for very long with a 6' 2" ceiling.
Oh... did you mean solid foam sheets? Raise the roof and slap in all you want of those! I wouldn't want those out in the wind.
That any helpful?
Again, welcome to the forum!