Re: Length of bus
For legal length it is usually overall. In NYS, length and width is measured "exclusive of safety devices" (mirrors, stop arms, handles, etc.) and RV width is measured "exclusive of awning" if the awning and arms are mounted high enough off the road. (The law also excludes front bumper bicycle racks from the overall length, but only for transit buses.)
I don't know if bumpers can be considered "safety devices" or part of the vehicle, but if I were charged with enforcing vehicle length on a winding road, I would measure including the bumpers. I would not argue the point, but advise "tell it to the judge" if a "safety device" claim was made.
(When I was young, I got two speeding tickets where the officer was wrong. On my very first, about 40 years ago, the officer said the steep hill I was coasting down was thickly settled. It wasn't. I was still speeding, but the judge cut the fine in half. The second case was about 4 years later, where the officer said that a thickly settled area overrode the posted speed limit on a state highway. Thickly settled law only applied where there was no posted speed, and the judge asked the officer to withdraw the charge, which he did. It pays to be polite.)
Someone said "Making good decisions comes from experience, experience comes from bad decisions." I say there are three kinds of people: those who learn from their mistakes, those who learn from the mistakes of others, and those who never learn.