In my experience, circuit breakers are slow. The purpose of mis-handled screwdrivers is to melt their tips off so as to prevent a circuit breaker from tripping.
Ask me how I know . . . . .
Fuses are good, and perhaps except for the slow-blow variety they disconnect a short circuit right now
. But having an assortment of the right sized spares on hand can be a chore. And you can go through a bunch of them while tracking down a short circuit when the location of the short is unknown.
The exception is with printed circuit boards. Get a short in one of those, and often a copper strip can burn off of a board faster than a fast-blow fuse can blow.