C= compression ignition, S= spark ignition
For the newest diesels and the Tier II emissions business there is a new classification of CJ-4. I know Rotella T has it, but I'm not sure about any other brands (haven't looked).
As far as my engine, I run Phillips 66 Super HD. Yes, the stuff is cheap (but it's not Super Tech
) but it is what the mechanics at both the local Ford stealership and the local Detroit Diesel-Allison Transmission. The reason? I don't put enough miles on to worry about it. My manual calls for oil changes every 6,000 miles. After an oil analysis, it would appear I could go longer, but I don't put that many miles on so I have to change the oil after 3 months (I don't like condensation). The oil meets the CI-4 specification.
Check your manual and see what oil your engine calls for. Just because the newest oil supercedes the oldest doesn't mean you need it or even should run it. There are some transmission out there, for example, that will burn out the synchronizers if you use the wrong GL rating.
As for the easiest way to fill the oil....My dipstick is huge and in a fairly convenient location, but filling with quarts would be a pain. I carry a few to top it off if I burn any, but that's it. I either use my pump to drain a 5 gallon bucket or use a large funnel that closely resembles a beer bong and pour in gallons. My biggest issue is finding a big enough drain pan.